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Operators

Operators can be used to limit or broaden a search query. You can use any of the operators in both Smart search and Advanced search. If you do not use an operator, the default operator is AND.

TIP! If you are looking for a search term, remember to enter the “term” in quotation marks.

There are three different types of operator: logical, proximity and comparison. The examples in the table below show how to use the different types.


Operator

Example

Logical operators

and

pa=bosch and pa=siemens

will retrieve documents where both Bosch and Siemens are applicants.

The default operator in Smart search is “and”. Left has precedence over right. No operator has precedence by default.

or

in=smith or in=huber

will retrieve documents where the inventor's name is Smith or Huber.

not

txt=laser not semiconductor

will retrieve documents containing the word laser, while excluding documents containing the word semiconductor.

all

ti all "paint brush head"

will find all terms entered within quotes within the field identifier, although not necessarily in the order in which they appear. This corresponds to ti=(paint and brush and head).

any

ti any "motor engine"

will retrieve any of the terms entered within quotes within the field identifier. This corresponds to ti=(motor or engine).

Proximity

prox/distance<nr

mouse prox/distance<3 trap

will retrieve documents where the words mouse and trap are less than three words apart in the TXT identifier and in the order shown.

prox/unit=sentence

mouse prox/unit=sentence trap

will retrieve documents where the words mouse and trap happen to be in the same sentence in the TXT identifier.

Comparison

=

pa=siemens

will retrieve documents where the applicant's name is Siemens.

>=

Greater than or equal to (only valid for the field identifier pd )

pd >=1994

will retrieve documents having a publication date higher than or equal to 1994.

<=

Less than or equal to (only valid for the field identifier pd )

pd <=2014

will retrieve documents having a publication date less than or equal to 2014.

within

Retrieve documents published within a date range*

pd within "1994 2014"

pd within "1994, 2014"

will retrieve documents published between 1994 and 2014.

Note: the query pd >=1994 and pd <=2014 will also retrieve documents published between 1994 and 2014.