A list of the documents found during the patentability search for the European patent application or cited by the applicant is displayed under Citations.

The citations are grouped by origin (cited in "Search", "Examination" or "By applicant") and by type ("Patent literature" or "Non-patent literature").

The letter in square brackets stands for the category of document.

List of categories:


Particularly relevant if taken alone - prejudicing novelty. *


Particularly relevant if taken alone - prejudicing inventive step. *


Particularly relevant if combined with another document of the same category.


Documents defining the state of the art and not prejudicing novelty or inventive step.


Non-written disclosure.


Intermediate document.


Theory or principle underlying the invention.


Earlier patent application, but published after the filing date of the application searched (potentially conflicting patent documents).


Document cited in the application.


Document cited for other reasons.


Member of the same patent family, corresponding document.

* References cited by publications with a publication date from April 2011 might have category 'I'. Category 'I' is category 'X' further defined. With the introduction of new category 'I', the category 'X' will have a slightly different meaning.

A citation can be a patent document or an item of non-patent literature (XP).

Click on the publication number to open the document in Espacenet .

In the EP Register, you will find the documents cited at the bottom of the section "About this file" or in the section "Citations".

We display all cited documents which are available in our databases, regardless of their country of origin.